Brief overview of specifications

      • Repetition rate: DC to 5 kHz
      • Pulse duration: variable between about 20 microsec and multiple millisec, up to continuous
      • Nozzle diameter: typically 150, 200 and 300 micrometer; other diameters on request
      • Nozzle shape: conical with 40 degrees opening angle
      • Backing pressure: 0 to 15 Bar max; typically 0 - 5 Bar
      • Operating temperature: typically room temperature

Full scientific reports 

          • A short pulse (7 μs FWHM) and high repetition rate (dc-5kHz) cantilever piezovalve for pulsed atomic and molecular beams, Review of Scientific Instruments 80 (2009), 113303 (pdf link)
          • In situ characterization of a cold and short pulsed molecular beam by femtosecond ion imaging , Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 11 (2009), 3958 (pdf link)
          • Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging, Review of Scientific Instruments 86 (2015), 023110 (pdf link)

      Operating principle

          Rotational temperature 

          The Amsterdam Piezo Valve is able to produce very cold seeded molecular beams. The rotational temperature of polyatomic molecules seeded in Neon at moderate backing pressures of about 4-7 Bar is typically around 1-1.5 Kelvin. See below a hexapole focusing spectrum of a pulsed molecular beam of CH3Br with either the Amsterdam Piezo Valve or the General Valve (magnetic plunger type).

          Pulse width 

          The Amsterdam Piezo Valve is able to produce short and intense pulses of gas. Depending on the carrier gas pulses with a FWHM of 10-20 microsec can be obtained. Below a graph is shown detecting NO+ ions after ionization with a nanosecond laser of two different skimmed and seeded beams of 0.1% NO in helium and neon. The delay between the laser firing and the valve trigger was scanned.